Community-acquired pneumonia is one of the most common serious infections in children, with an annual incidence of 34 to 40 cases per 1,000 children in Europe and North America. When diagnosing community-acquired pneumonia, physicians should rely mainly on the patient’s history and physical examination, supplemented by judicious use of chest radiographs and laboratory tests as needed. The child’s age is important in making the diagnosis. Pneumonia in neonates younger than three weeks of age most often is caused by an infection obtained from the mother at birth. often are the etiologic agents in children older than five years and in adolescents. In very young children who appear toxic, hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics are needed. The symptoms in outpatients who present with community-acquired pneumonia can help determine the treatment. KIMBERLY STUCKEY-SCHROCK, MD, Memphis, Tennessee BURTON L. GEORGE, Pharm D, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee Am Fam Physician. Community-acquired pneumonia is a potentially serious infection in children and often results in hospitalization. The diagnosis can be based on the history and physical examination results in children with fever plus respiratory signs and symptoms. Chest radiography and rapid viral testing may be helpful when the diagnosis is unclear. The most likely etiology depends on the age of the child. The decision to treat with antibiotics is challenging, especially with the increasing prevalence of viral and bacterial coinfections. Preschool-aged children with uncomplicated bacterial pneumonia should be treated with amoxicillin. Macrolides are first-line agents in older children. Immunization with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is important in reducing the severity of childhood pneumococcal infections.
You may associate pneumonia with dramatic movie scenes involving prolonged hospital stays, oxygen tents, and family members whispering in bedside huddles. But more often pneumonia is an infection that can be easily treated at home without having to go to the hospital. Pneumonia (pronounced: noo-MOW-nyuh) is an infection of the lungs. When someone has pneumonia, lung tissue can fill with pus and other fluid, which makes it difficult for oxygen in the lung's air sacs (alveoli) to reach the bloodstream. With pneumonia, a person may have difficulty breathing and have a cough and fever; occasionally, chest or abdominal pain and vomiting are symptoms, too. Pneumonia is often caused by viruses, such as the influenza virus (flu) and adenovirus. Other viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus, are common causes of pneumonia in young kids and babies. People with bacterial pneumonia are usually sicker than those with viral pneumonia, but they can be treated with antibiotic medications. You might have heard the terms "double pneumonia" or "walking pneumonia." Double pneumonia simply means that the infection is in both lungs. Study is now showing that using just one of the two has the same benefit to patients in most cases. Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) researchers reported this week that amoxicillin alone, rather than combined with azithromycin, is just as effective and a better choice as it relates to efforts to curb antibiotic resistance. One of the most commonly used antibiotics in pediatrics, azithromycin was prescribed to 12.2 million outpatients in 2013 and accounted for almost 20 percent of all antibiotic prescriptions for children in the U. ambulatory setting, according to an editorial accompanying the study. “Combination therapy with azithromycin is unnecessary in most cases of pediatric pneumonia, both because the bacteria targeted by azithromycin are less common than other causes of pneumonia, including viruses, and the effectiveness of azithromycin has not been clearly demonstrated in prior studies,” said lead author Derek Williams, M. “By minimizing antibiotic exposure whenever possible, we can preserve the effectiveness of currently available antibiotics.” Williams and co-authors studied 1,418 children (693 girls and 725 boys) hospitalized for radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia. Amoxicillin, a beta-lactam antibiotic, was used on 72 percent of the study patients while 28 percent received a combination of amoxicillin plus azithromycin. There were no significant differences in length of stay, intensive care admission, readmissions or recovery at follow-up between the groups. Thus, “the combined therapy showed no benefit over the single therapy of just amoxicillin,” Williams said.
Nov 9, 2017. “By minimizing antibiotic exposure whenever possible, we can preserve. “Amoxicillin or the IV equivalent, ampicillin, treat the most common. The dose of Amoxicillin that is selected to treat an individual infection should take into account • The expected pathogens and their likely susceptibility to.