Clonidine belongs to a class of drugs called central alpha-adrenergic agonists. In the United States, clonidine tablets are sold under the brand name Catapres and clonidine skin patches are sold under the brand name Catapres-TTS. There is also an injectable form that is administered directly into the spinal cord for the treatment of postoperative pain. Clonidine tablets and patches are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of high blood pressure. However, clonidine has been found to be useful in the treatment of alcohol, opiate, and nicotine withdrawal syndromes, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Tourette's syndrome, one of the tic disorders . Clonidine was synthesized in 1960s and was initially tested as a nasal decongestant. In the United States, clonidine was first used to treat hypertension although it has also been investigated for treatment of different neuropsychiatric disorders. Clonidine works on specific nerve cells in the brain that are responsible for lowering blood pressure, slowing heart rate, and decreasing the body's reaction to the withdrawal of chemicals like alcohol, opiates, cocaine, and nicotine. Tourette syndrome (TS) is a highly heritable yet heterogeneous childhood onset disorder. The cardinal movement disorder required for diagnosis is tics. As persons with tics or TS often have obsessive/compulsiveness, inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, anxiety, and anger outbursts, the presence of tics should prompt clinicians to look for these other conditions. While randomized controlled trials provide valid evidence of efficacy for symptoms in isolation, implications for treatment of complex patients meeting criteria for multiple diagnoses is not always clear. In this review, the authors critically review factors influencing decisions whether and how to treat medically tics as well as OCD and ADHD in the presence of tics.
If you have questions about medication for Tourette Syndrome (TS), you should discuss them with a specialist who can take into account individual factors. Information about side effects given here is not intended to be comprehensive. Medication can reduce symptoms and improve quality of life of people with TS when needed. Unfortunately side effects of the treatments are not uncommon and their effectiveness varies from person to person, so they are not beneficial for everyone who tries them. In an ideal world behavioural treatments would more often be a first choice. Unfortunately specialised therapists are often not available which increases the likelihood of medication being offered. In some patients medication can be highly effective and a better solution than behavioural options. Clonidine is a centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that was first investigated for the treatment of hot flashes in the 1970s.66–68 Clonidine raises hot flash threshold by reducing norepinephrine release.69From: is moderately effective in women with a history of breast cancer who are taking tamoxifen, but does not appear to be very effective in the treatment of hot flashes in men. The side effect profile needs to be considered before is particularly effective for treating labile hypertensive patients who need multiple medications, those who cannot take oral medications, and those with prominent early morning BP surges. Transdermal during the 12 hours before surgery, in order to reduce anxiety. During induction of anesthesia with oxygen, sevoflurane and nitrous oxide the child developed severe bradycardia and hypotension and was successfully resuscitated. performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on 34 children (7–13 years) with TS and ADHD of normal intellect. Each subject received in a randomly assigned fashion, 1-week medication cycles with either did not significantly reduce outcome measures for ADHD, including parent and teacher Child Behavior Checklists (CBCL), continuous performance tests, and executive functioning tests, with the exception of the “nervous/overactive” subscale of the CBCL. Improvement with desipramine was always superior to that rated with plus MPH significantly improved hyperactivity/impulsive symptoms of ADHD observed on ADHD Conners abbreviated symptoms questionnaire for teachers (ASQ).
Clonidine Catapres®, Dixarit® and generic forms belongs to a group of medications. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder AD/HD and tic disorders such as. Patients. 136 children between 7 and 14 years of age mean age 10 y, 85% boys who had ADHD of any subtype and TS, chronic motor tic disorder, or chronic.